By Sarah Ritter and Sarah Rochford, New Scientist – 23 November 2017 A new report has found that drugs which have been used for decades for the treatment of cancer, malaria and hepatitis are less effective in treating HIV than those which have never been approved for use.
Drug companies and governments are now struggling to find effective ways of targeting HIV in a world with rapid advances in treatment and prevention.
A new report from Oxford University says that drugs known as protease inhibitors, or protease inhibitor cocktails, are often ineffective in preventing HIV infection.
“Protease inhibitors have the potential to reduce the transmission of HIV by preventing the viral replication of HIV in the body,” said the report, by the Oxford Centre for Drug and Biological Engineering (OCEB).
The study used data from more than 400 HIV tests across the UK.
It found that the rate of HIV infections in people with HIV was higher than in people who did not have HIV, but it was not higher than for people who tested positive.
In contrast, the rate was lower in people whose test results had been negative for HIV.
The report’s authors say this indicates that protease inhibition cocktails are less helpful than protease enzymes, which are the main component of HIV-1, and have only been effective for HIV treatment in people already infected.
The authors also said the lack of evidence of efficacy for protease inhibitors is concerning.
The new report says protease inhibiting drugs have the capacity to reduce HIV infection in people infected with HIV, by preventing HIV replication in the liver.
“The drug-related side effects of proteasein inhibitors can be extremely severe and often cause permanent disability, especially for people with severe disease,” said Dr Richard Wylie, from Oxford’s Department of Pathology.
“Our findings provide evidence that proteases are less likely to be effective at preventing HIV in people on protease-inhibiting drugs.”
This means that proteas are more likely to have negative side effects in people, and this may have an impact on the effectiveness of proteases as treatment.
“Proteases are the active enzymes in the HIV-2 virus, which cause a virus to replicate in the human body.
It is the second most common cause of HIV infection after HIV-7.HIV is caused by two different types of HIV, and can infect people in the womb, the first stage of pregnancy.
The drugs that block the HIV proteins called proteases have been shown to reduce infections by HIV-4 and HIV-5.
In recent years, protease cocktails have been tested for their ability to prevent HIV infection, but there have been few clinical trials.
A recent study by the Cochrane Collaboration in the UK, which was published last month, looked at more than 30 studies which used protease cocktail to treat HIV patients.
The Cochrane report said that more than half of the trials were “large and of poor quality” and had been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of HIV is higher.
The researchers say the findings support the idea that protea are not the best option for HIV prevention.”
However, these findings are not reassuring,” they wrote.”
Although the proteaseic activity of proteas appears to be well suited to the task of inhibiting HIV, the proteases themselves may not be suitable for use in other HIV-related clinical situations, particularly those with low HIV prevalence, where a higher number of infections could occur.
“The researchers also say that the efficacy of protea is not necessarily linked to how well they prevent HIV infections, and the drugs are often used with other treatments, such as antiviral drugs.